Low gradient "severe" aortic stenosis with preserved left ventricular ojection fraction
In developed nations, aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular heart disease presentation, and its prevalence is increasing due to aging populations. Accurate diagnosis of the disease process and determination of its severity are essential in clinical decision-making. Although current guidelines recommend measuring transvalvular gradients, maximal velocity, and aortic valve area in determining the disease severity, inconsistent grading of disease severity remains a common problem in clinical practice. Recent studies suggest that patients with paradoxical low-flow and/or low-gradient, severe AS are at a more advanced stage of the disease process and have a poorer prognosis. This mode of presentation may lead to an undervaluation of symptoms and inappropriate delay of AVR. Therefore, this challenging clinical situation should be carefully assessed in particular in symptomatic patients and clinical decisions should be tailored individually.