Open heart surgery in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and promise

Koffi Herve Yangni-Angate


Perhaps the greatest advances in diagnosis of acquired heart defects were made by James Hope [1801-41]. His ethical principles were remarkable:
In the first place, never keep a patient sick when you can do something for him.
In the second place, never take a higher fee than what you truly feel you are entitled to.
In the third place, always pray for your patients