Article Abstract

Venous malformations: clinical diagnosis and treatment

Authors: Sasan Behravesh, Wayne Yakes, Nikhil Gupta, Sailendra Naidu, Brian W. Chong, Ali Khademhosseini, Rahmi Oklu


Venous malformation (VM) is the most common type of congenital vascular malformation (CVM). They are present at birth and are often symptomatic, causing morbidity and pain. VMs can be challenging to diagnose and are often confused with hemangioma in terminology as well as with imaging. An accurate clinical history and cross-sectional imaging are critical for diagnosis and for devising management. This manuscript will review imaging approaches to diagnosing VMs and current treatment strategies.