The EUROASPIRE surveys: lessons learned in cardiovascular disease prevention
The Joint European Societies (JES) guidelines on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention published in 1994, 1998, 2003, 2007, 2012 and 2016 defined lifestyle and risk factors targets for patients with coronary or other atherosclerotic disease and people at high risk of developing CVD. Guideline implementation in Europe has been evaluated with four cross-sectional EUROASPIRE surveys starting in mid-1990s. The results showed poor lifestyle and risk factor management in patients with CHD and in high CVD risk people with high prevalences of smoking, obesity, central obesity and diabetes. The control of blood pressure, lipids and glucose was far from optimal. A comparison across the recent three surveys provided a unique description of time trends for secondary prevention over a period of 14 years. The results showed adverse lifestyle trends, a substantial increase in obesity, central obesity and diabetes. Despite significant improvement of blood pressure and lipid control many patients were not reaching the risk factor goals and there was no change in glucose control. Comparing the most recent two surveys, there were no major differences in lifestyle and risk factor management in people at high risk of developing CVD. A new approach to CVD prevention integrating primary and secondary prevention into a modern preventive cardiology programme, focusing on lifestyle and risk factor management is required, in order to reduce the risk of CVD events and improve quality of life in patients with CHD and those at high risk of developing CVD.