Article Abstract

Prevalence and correlates of chronic kidney disease in a group of patients with hypertension in the Savanah zone of Cameroon: a cross-sectional study in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Ba Hamadou, Jérôme Boombhi, Félicité Kamdem, Adeline Fitame, Sylvie Ndongo Amougou, Liliane Kuate Mfeukeu, Chris Nadège Nganou, Alain Menanga, Gloria Ashuntantang


Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide due to an increase in the risk factors such as hypertension. The greatest burden is in low-income settings, coupled with late diagnosis and limited management resources. This work aimed at studying the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in a group of patients with hypertension in the Savanah zone in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study between January and May 2016 in the regional Hospital of Garoua-Cameroon. Participants were adults ≥18 years of both sexes, who had a diagnosis of hypertension. Patients underwent a comprehensive clinical, biological, and electrocardiographic evaluation.
Results: A total of 400 patients with hypertension were included, of whom 132 (33%; 95% CI: 28.6–37.8%) were males. Their mean age was 54.16±11.17 years. Hypertension was controlled in 122 (30.5%; 95% CI: 26.2–35.2%) participants. Twelve percent (12%) had a positive urine dipstick for proteins. The mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 75.27±24.87 mL/min/1.73m2. The prevalence of CKD was seen in 129 (32.3%; 95% CI: 27.9–36.98) participants. Stage 3A was the most frequent (62.01%). The main comorbidities were anemia (44.5%), obesity (39.75%), diabetes (32%), consumption of traditional medicines (15.75%), and hyperuricemia (10.75%). After multivariate analysis, age >50 years (aOR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.06– 2.89; P=0.027), female sex (aOR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.29–3.78; P=0.0035), obesity (aOR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.01–2.44; P=0.026) and the hyperuricemia (aOR: 3.67; 95% CI: 1.78–7.58; P<0.001) were independently associated with CKD.
Conclusions: The prevalence of CKD in adults with hypertension was high. This was associated with age greater than 50 years, female sex, obesity and the hyperuricemia.