Article Abstract

Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic abnormalities in adults living with human immunodeficiency virus: a crosssectional study in the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon

Authors: Ba Hamadou, Marie Ntep Ngweth, Miriam Megueo Fotso, Liliane Mfeukeu-Kuate, Ahmadou M. Jingi, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Chris Nadege Nganou, Jerome Boombhi, Sylvie Ndongo Amougou, Alain Menanga, Samuel Kingue


Background: Cardiac involvement is frequent in the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection disease. This work aimed at studying the profile of echocardiographic and electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities in adults living with HIV (PLHIV), compared to those not infected with HIV at the treatment unit of the Yaoundé Central Hospital.
Methods: We carried out a case-control study over three months at the HIV treatment unit. We included adults of both sexes, aged ≥21 years, HIV-infected (cases), and age and sex matched controls. Those with a history of heart disease were excluded. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, ECG, and echocardiographic data.
Results: We included 59 PLHIV and 59 age-sex matched controls without HIV infection. The prevalence of echocardiographic abnormalities was 28.8% in cases, and 8.5% in the control group (P=0.005). The prevalence of ECG abnormalities was 28.8% in the cases, and 18.6% in the control group (P=0.195). The main echocardiographic abnormalities (cases versus controls) were aortic regurgitation (10.2% versus 3.4%, P=0.144), right atrial dilation (6.8% versus 1.7%, P=0.178), diastolic dysfunction (5.1% versus 1.7%, P=0.310), and Left ventricular hypertrophy (5.1% versus 0%, P=0.080). The main ECG abnormalities (cases versus controls) were abnormal repolarization (11.9% versus 5.1%, P=0.187), sinus tachycardia (10.2% versus 6.8%, P=0.510), and atrial fibrillation (5.1% versus 0%, P=0.080). HIV infection was significantly associated with echocardiographic abnormalities and not with ECG abnormalities. The degree of immune deficiency was independently associated with the occurrence of echocardiographic and ECG abnormalities.
Conclusions: HIV infected adults have more echocardiographic and ECG abnormalities compared to non-infected adults. The ECG and echocardiographic anomalies varied, and depends on the severity of immune deficiency.