Echocardiographic guidance of interventions in adults with congenital heart defects
Cardiac catheterization procedures have revolutionized the treatment of adults with congenital heart disease over the past six decades. Patients who previously would have required open heart surgery for various conditions can now undergo percutaneous cardiac catheter-based procedures to close intracardiac shunts, relieve obstructive valvular lesions, stent stenotic vessels, or even replace and repair dysfunctional valves. As the complexity of percutaneous cardiac catheterization procedures has increased, so has the use of echocardiography for interventional guidance in adults with congenital heart disease. Transthoracic, transesophageal, intracardiac, and three-dimensional echocardiography have all become part and parcel of the catheterization laboratory experience. In this review, we aim to describe the different echocardiographic techniques and their role in various cardiac catheterization interventions specific to adults with congenital heart disease.