CT and MR imaging of the upper extremity vasculature: pearls, pitfalls, and challenges
Imaging is needed for diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients with pathologies affecting upper extremity vasculature. With growth and evolution of imaging modalities [especially CT angiography (CTA) and MR angiography (MRA)], there is need to recognize the advantages and disadvantages of various modalities and obtain the best possible imaging diagnostic test. Understanding various limitations and pitfalls as well as the best practices to minimize and manage these pitfalls is very important for the diagnosis. This article reviews the upper extremity arterial vascular anatomy, discusses the CTA and MRA imaging, various pitfalls, and challenges and discuss imaging manifestations of upper extremity arterial pathologies.