Emerging clinical applications of strain imaging and three-dimensional echocardiography for the assessment of ventricular function in adult congenital heart disease
Management of congenital heart disease (CHD) in adults (ACHD) remains an ongoing challenge due to the presence of residual hemodynamic lesions and development of ventricular dysfunction in a large number of patients. Echocardiographic imaging plays a central role in clinical decision-making and selection of patients who will benefit most from catheter interventions or cardiac surgery.. Recent advances in both strain imaging and three-dimensional (3D)-echocardiography have significantly contributed to a greater understanding of the complex pathophysiological mechanisms involved in CHD. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of emerging clinical applications of speckle-tracking imaging and 3D-echocardiography in ACHD with focus on functional assessment, ventriculo-ventricular interdependency, mechanisms of electromechanical delay, and twist abnormalities in adults with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), a systemic RV after atrial switch repair or in double discordance ventricles, and in those with a Fontan circulation.