Balloon angioplasty or stent implantation for pulmonary vein stenosis caused by fibrosing mediastinitis: a systematic review

Yichao Duan, Xing Zhou, Hongling Su, Kaiyu Jiang, Wenyu Wu, Xin Pan, Guanming Qi, Yan Zhang, Yunshan Cao


Fibrosing mediastinitis (FM) is a very rare disease, often caused by histoplasmosis capsulatum, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, autoimmunity and other diseases, such as IgG 4-related diseases. Fibrous structures in the mediastinum compress the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, superior vena cava, esophagus, trachea and cardiac vessels, leading to clinical symptoms. Drug therapeutic modality for pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) caused by FM is palliative in essence and with limited efficacy, whereas surgical treatment causes high mortality. In recent years, catheter-based treatment to FM-caused PVS has emerged as a promising therapeutic modality, however, the safety and effectiveness of this modality remain unclear. Therefore, a systematic review on the safety and efficacy of the catheter-based treatment for PVS caused by FM was performed, in the hope to shed lights on the alternative therapeutic strategy to this fatal disease.