Circulating biomarkers in the early detection of hypertensive heart disease: usefulness in the developing world
Although the varying phenotypic spectra of hypertensive heart disease (HHD) can be assessed by electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), ECG criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are insensitive, while echocardiography and CMR are expensive, less readily available and often lack requisite expertise. Consequently, the use of circulating biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognostication of HHD beyond the traditional N-terminal pro- b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) have become an attractive alternative. We carried out a PubMed and Google Scholar databases’ search of original articles on circulating biomarkers used in the diagnosis of the different spectrum of HHD over the last 10 years [2005–2015] in humans. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria with NT-pro BNP being the most studied circulating biomarker in HHD followed by soluble ST2 (sST2). There is a lack of data on the use of circulating biomarkers in HHD. There is a need to explore further this area of investigative cardiology.