Article Abstract

Demographic and angiographic profile in premature cases of acute coronary syndrome: analysis of 820 young patients from South India

Authors: Surender Deora, Tarun Kumar, Rangaraj Ramalingam, Chollenhalli Nanjappa Manjunath

Abstract

Background: Prevalence of acute coronary syndrome in young individuals is increasing progressively. Previous studies have focused on the analysis of risk factors and to some extent coronary angiographic profile in young vs. old patients with acute coronary syndrome, but no study compared the angiographic profile in young patients based on the type of acute coronary syndrome. So, this study was conducted to determine the differences in demographic and coronary angiographic profile of young patients with ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) vs. those with non-ST-elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA).
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed young patients (age: <40 years) with acute coronary syndrome who underwent coronary angiography at Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Research, Bengaluru, India between April 2010 and March 2011. Coronary risk factor profile and angiographic features were compared between STEMI and NSTEMI/UA patients.
Results: Of 8,268 patients who underwent coronary angiography during the study period, 820 (~10%) were ≤40 year age. Of them, 611 exhibited STEMI and 209 exhibited NSTEMI/UA. Angiographic analysis revealed that single-vessel disease was significantly more common in the STEMI group (56.6% vs. 36.6% respectively; P<0.001) whereas triple-vessel disease was significantly more common in the NSTEMI/UA group (3.6% vs. 10.5% respectively; P<0.001). Conversely, left anterior descending coronary artery was more commonly involved in the STEMI group (55.3% vs. 40.2% respectively; P<0.001), whereas left circumflex coronary artery was more commonly involved in the NSTEMI/UA group (11.8 vs. 23.4% respectively; P<0.001). Of note, smoking/tobacco consumption was the most significant coronary risk factor with prevalence as high as 65% in both groups.
Conclusions: In the present study, significant differences were observed in coronary risk factor profile and angiographic features between young patients with STEMI and NSTEMI/UA. Larger studies will be required to establish specific associations between presentation of acute coronary syndromes and angiographic profiles in young patients.