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Imaging of venous compression syndromes

	author = {Evan J. Zucker and Suvranu Ganguli and Brian B. Ghoshhajra and Rajiv Gupta and Anand M. Prabhakar},
	title = {Imaging of venous compression syndromes},
	journal = {Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy},
	volume = {6},
	number = {6},
	year = {2016},
	keywords = {},
	abstract = {Venous compression syndromes are a unique group of disorders characterized by anatomical extrinsic venous compression, typically in young and otherwise healthy individuals. While uncommon, they may cause serious complications including pain, swelling, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, and post-thrombotic syndrome. The major disease entities are May-Thurner syndrome (MTS), variant iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), venous thoracic outlet syndrome (VTOS)/Paget-Schroetter syndrome, nutcracker syndrome (NCS), and popliteal venous compression (PVC). In this article, we review the key clinical features, multimodality imaging findings, and treatment options of these disorders. Emphasis is placed on the growing role of noninvasive imaging options such as magnetic resonance venography (MRV) in facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and tailored intervention.},
	issn = {2223-3660},	url = {}