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A low-cost machine learning-based cardiovascular/stroke risk assessment system: integration of conventional factors with image phenotypes

  
@article{CDT29401,
	author = {Ankush Jamthikar and Deep Gupta and Narendra N. Khanna and Luca Saba and Tadashi Araki and Klaudija Viskovic and Harman S. Suri and Ajay Gupta and Sophie Mavrogeni and Monika Turk and John R. Laird and Gyan Pareek and Martin Miner and Petros P. Sfikakis and Athanasios Protogerou and George D. Kitas and Vijay Viswanathan and Andrew Nicolaides and Deepak L. Bhatt and Jasjit S. Suri},
	title = {A low-cost machine learning-based cardiovascular/stroke risk assessment system: integration of conventional factors with image phenotypes},
	journal = {Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy},
	volume = {9},
	number = {5},
	year = {2019},
	keywords = {},
	abstract = {Background: Most cardiovascular (CV)/stroke risk calculators using the integration of carotid ultrasound image-based phenotypes (CUSIP) with conventional risk factors (CRF) have shown improved risk stratification compared with either method. However such approaches have not yet leveraged the potential of machine learning (ML). Most intelligent ML strategies use follow-ups for the endpoints but are costly and time-intensive. We introduce an integrated ML system using stenosis as an endpoint for training and determine whether such a system can lead to superior performance compared with the conventional ML system.
Methods: The ML-based algorithm consists of an offline and online system. The offline system extracts 47 features which comprised of 13 CRF and 34 CUSIP. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to select the most significant features. These offline features were then trained using the event-equivalent gold standard (consisting of percentage stenosis) using a random forest (RF) classifier framework to generate training coefficients. The online system then transforms the PCA-based test features using offline trained coefficients to predict the risk labels on test subjects. The above ML system determines the area under the curve (AUC) using a 10-fold cross-validation paradigm. The above system so-called “AtheroRisk-Integrated” was compared against “AtheroRisk-Conventional”, where only 13 CRF were considered in a feature set. 
Results: Left and right common carotid arteries of 202 Japanese patients (Toho University, Japan) were retrospectively examined to obtain 395 ultrasound scans. AtheroRisk-Integrated system [AUC =0.80, P},
	issn = {2223-3660},	url = {http://cdt.amegroups.com/article/view/29401}
}