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Discrepancies between two lipid-lowering guidelines for CVD prevention in seemingly healthy individuals—case study Lebanon

	author = {Hussain Ali Isma’eel and Bernard Harbieh and Hani Tamim and Lara Nasreddine and Farah Naja and Abla Sibai and Nada Adra and Kamal Badr and Nahla Hwalla},
	title = {Discrepancies between two lipid-lowering guidelines for CVD prevention in seemingly healthy individuals—case study Lebanon},
	journal = {Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy},
	volume = {3},
	number = {3},
	year = {2013},
	keywords = {},
	abstract = {Background: In deciding on optimal interventions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, more than one set of guidelines are available.
Hypothesis: The aim of the study was to assess the agreement between the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2011 Guidelines for CVD Prevention and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) 2009 Guidelines in recommending lipid lowering interventions in a seemingly healthy cohort of Lebanese persons.
Methods: A nationally representative cohort of Lebanon was identified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) Steps Criteria. From this cohort, a group of 283 adult individuals not known to have chronic illnesses was selected. Using the algorithms present in each guideline, lipid lowering recommendations for each individual were determined. Agreement between the two guideline recommendations was determined using the Kappa test.
Results: As per ESC, 3.9% of the participants required immediate drug therapy, 15.5% should be considered for drug therapy, and 80.1% required lifestyle intervention. As per the CCS, however, 19.4% required drug therapy. The overall level of agreement between the ESC and CCS for recommending lipid lowering was moderate (Kappa 0.77), and better in males (Kappa 0.82). In contrast, 37.5% of females recommended drug therapy as per the CCS guidelines would not be per the ESC guidelines (Kappa 0.63).
Conclusions: Significant discrepancies exist in recommendations for lipid-lowering therapy between CCS and ESC guidelines when applied to Lebanese individuals, particularly for women. Local healthcare authorities and the WHO should attend to this issue in order to unify treatment approaches and limit disparities in care.},
	issn = {2223-3660},	url = {}