3D printing from cardiovascular CT: a practical guide and review
Current cardiovascular imaging techniques allow anatomical relationships and pathological conditions to be captured in three dimensions. Three-dimensional (3D) printing, or rapid prototyping, has also become readily available and made it possible to transform virtual reconstructions into physical 3D models. This technology has been utilised to demonstrate cardiovascular anatomy and disease in clinical, research and educational settings. In particular, 3D models have been generated from cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) imaging data for purposes such as surgical planning and teaching. This review summarises applications, limitations and practical steps required to create a 3D printed model from cardiovascular CT.