Congenital pulmonary vascular anomalies
Congenital pulmonary vascular anomalies are typically found in infancy or early childhood however, some may remain silent and present in adult patients. Anomalies may be separated into anatomic categories based on involvement of the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins or both with or without involvement of the lung parenchyma. Association with congenital heart disease and other syndromes is very common. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are both invaluable at assessment of these anomalies allowing for both diagnosis and detailed treatment planning. This article will focus primarily on the use of CT, as the high resolution evaluation of the lung parenchyma is also important in many of these conditions. In young patients especially, rapid heart rate and concerns of radiation exposure are important considerations when performing CT. This article will discuss scan techniques as well as clinical diagnostic considerations and basic endovascular treatment of congenital pulmonary vascular anomalies.