Hypertension in Sudanese individuals and associated risk factors: the critical intersection between salt and sugar intake

Heitham Awadalla, Nehad Elsheikh Elmak, Eman F. El-Sayed, Ahmed O. Almobarak, Wadie M. Elmadhoun, Mugtaba Osman, Sufian K. Noor, Mohamed H. Ahmed


Background: Hypertension is common problem across the globe. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and impact of salt and sugar intake in Sudanese population.
Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study, included 323 of participants in Khartoum state. The data collection was performed to gather demographic information, physical activity and dietary habits. In addition to measurement of blood pressure (BP), weight and height measurement for calculation of body mass index (BMI).
Results: Among the 323 respondents (males were 171), 29 (9%) are known hypertensive, 60 (18.6%) are diagnosed to be hypertensive. Therefore, the prevalence of hypertension is 27.6%. Hypertension was significantly associated with male sex, increasing age, obesity, low physical activity, salt and sugar intake. Logistic regression analysis showed that increasing age, obesity and high sugar intake are absolute predictors for hypertension in Sudanese population.
Conclusions: The prevalence of hypertension was 27.6%. Hypertension in Sudanese individuals was associated with high sugar and salt intake, obesity and increase in age. Therefore, decreasing sugar and salt intake should be advocated by health authorities and the public in Sudan.