In a study recently published in the European Heart Journal, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was performed to assess target lesion remodelling before percutaneous coronary intervention in 134 patients with ACS. PR was defined as the ratio of the external elastic membrane cross-sectional area at the target lesion to that of at the proximal reference of >1.05, and intermediate or negative remodelling (IR/NR) was defined as that of ≤1.05. Major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was defined as a composite of death, ACS, and target lesion revascularization. During the follow-up (median 5.8 years), MACE-free survival was significantly lower in the PR group than that in the IR/NR group (log-rank, P = 0.005). Survival and ACS-free survival were also significantly lower in the PR group than that in the IR/NR group (log-rank, both P = 0.04). By multivariable Cox regression analysis, PR (hazard ratio = 2.4, P = 0.02) and diabetes (hazard ratio = 1.9, P = 0.03) were independent predictors of MACE
The authors conclude that culprit lesion PR was associated with a poor long-term prognosis in patients with ACS. These data provide further evidence that coronary PR is a marker of plaque vulnerability.
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